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Animal Conditions Learning Centre

DESCRIPTION: Canine seborrhoea or seborrheac dermatitis is a common and often relapsing condition, usually found on the back of dogs but can manifest anywhere on the body.  It can be divided into seborrhoea sicca (dry seborrhea) and seborrhoea oleosa (oily seborrhoea) and your dog may have just one or both seborrheas present.

SYMPTOMS: The symptoms of seborrhoea dermatitis are usually grey skin and hair, often with accompanying scaliness progressing to dandruff.  Sometimes this condition can be genetic however more often it is reflective of either a hormonal issue or an underlying health issue.  Seborrhea sicca manifests as a dandruff appearance and seborrhoea oleosa manifests as an oily exudate on the fur and skin and it can be quite malodorous.

There can be itching, crusting or even bleeding present.

CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT: Testing is indicated to see if there is an underlying issue that can be found.  If it Is fungal or bacterial in nature anti-fungals or antibiotics may be undertaken. 

MicroMed Note: Seborrhoea Dermatitis is a sign of a system out of balance.  If we determine where this imbalance originates it is likely to have begun in the gut, through a process of microbial alteration, leading to inflammation and possibly this in turn leading to a Leaky Gut, also known as Intestinal Permeability.  This is where the gut becomes too permeable and substances that should not gain access to the bloodstream, do and this in turn sets up an accumulating immune reaction.  It is little wonder that seborrhoea dermatitis is evident when there are so many animals with such compromised gastro-intestinal tracts.  Re-establishment of the microbial balance is necessary, to help reduce inflammation and restore equilibrium.  Studies show that the microbial balance can now affect whole body health - or disease.   We recommend the use of MicroMed’s Immediate Care Probiotic, for a period of two months to re-establish the correct balance of microbes in order to outcompete and deter detrimental organisms from taking hold.

It is important to work to improve the diet such that there are plenty of live enzymes, papaya being rich in enzymes, and green foods such as spirulina, broccoli and green tripe in the diet.  Essential fatty acids are important in a balance of Omega three to six for good oil balance in the dermis and epidermis layers and to support the sebaceous glands.  If Leaky Gut is suspected, commence bone broth as soon as possible, and possibly look to supplement with a gut repair preparation.  Milk thistle tincture can be used in small doses, over a two month period, to commence liver detoxification - usually indicated if the dog has received its full vaccinations, to remove the heavy metals from the body.  It is recommended you check with your vet before commencing any treatment to ensure there are no contra-indications.  Most dogs do have gut dysbiosis and so using MicroMed for Dogs Oral Probiotic from the Ongoing Care range would be  indicated in this scenario.

 

 

 

 

DESCRIPTION & SYMPTOMS:

Can be inflammatory, infectious or neoplastic (abnormal or excessive growth of tissue)

Literally, pyoderma means ‘pus' in the 'skin’, and is made up of either superficial pyoderma or deep pyoderma (not detailed below).

Superficial Pyodermas :

bacterial folliculitis (usually staphylococci), where infection occurs n the hair folliclesbacterial overgrowth symptoms (odor, scaling, red skin and pruritis (itching) andimpetigo (small areas of infection, usually on hairless areas)

TREATMENT:

Due to methicillin resistance, drug treatment for any of the pyodermas is now challenging to vets.  A full range of tests may be undertaken to ascertain the underlying cause.

Bacterium involved:

Diagnosis will be given after tests confirm the presence of the bacteria Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, Staphylococcus schleiferi, and in a low percentage of dogs, the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus.  This last bacteria has given rise for concern recently, as it is now evident this particular bacteria has also developed resistance to the drug methicillin, often prescribed by vets to treat the condition.   Staphylococcus pseudintermedius has also become resistant to the drug Methicillin, and this bacteria can cause human infection in those who are immune-compromised, very young or very old.  In addition to this list of bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been added.  Staphylococcus schleiferi was actually first identified in humans in 1988 and subsequently was then implicated in canine pyoderma and otitis external (or ear infections) in dogs.

MicroMed Note: The causes of Superficial Pyodermas are many, from trauma to the skin giving rise to infection by bacteria or fungi, keratinisation disorders, parasitic infestation such as mites, hormonal issues or environmental irritants.  Nevertheless, pyoderma is a sign of a system out of balance.  If we determine where this imbalance originates it is likely to have begun in the gut, through a process of microbial alteration, leading to inflammation and possibly this in turn leading to a Leaky Gut, also known as Intestinal Permeability.  This is where the gut becomes too permeable and substances that should not gain access to the bloodstream, do and this in turn sets up an accumulating immune reaction.  It is little wonder that superficial pyoderma are evident when there are so many animals with such compromised gastro-intestinal tracts.  Re-establishment of the microbial balance is necessary, to help reduce inflammation and restore equilibrium.  Studies show that the microbial balance can now affect whole body health - or disease.   We recommend the use of MicroMed’s Immediate Care Probiotic, for a period of two months to re-establish the correct balance of microbes in order to outcompete and deter detrimental organisms from taking hold.

DESCRIPTION:

There are 18 known types of malassezia however only one, Malassezia pachydermatis is commonly found on dogs.  Many breeds are susceptible to this yeast : Basset Hounds, West Highland White Terriers, Shih Tzus, English Setters, American Cocker Spaniels, Boxers, Dachshunds, Poodles and Australian Silky Terriers. 

Symptoms can include:

Lesions, most often seen between the toes and back of the neck, armpits, groin area, the external ear canal or foldsPruritus or itchErythema (a rash with or without papules); reddish bumps and blisters which can spread outward, creating ulcerations or round “bulls eye” lesions (red circles with a central white area)ScalingGreasy exudationHyperpigmentation/lichenification; leathery, elephant-like skinMalodourParonychia; crusting, greasy exudation and hyperpigmentation of the toenail and surrounding areaCheilitis/muzzle erythema; these cases often exhibit extreme facial pruritus

CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT:

Veterinarian treatment is with antifungals - the only treatment that is challenging to vets is paronychia whereby removal of the toe-nail is sometimes indicated.

MicroMed Note: Malassezia dermatitis is a sign of a system out of balance.  If we determine where this imbalance originates it is likely to have begun in the gut, through a process of microbial alteration, leading to inflammation and possibly this in turn leading to a Leaky Gut, also known as Intestinal Permeability.  This is where the gut becomes too permeable and substances that should not gain access to the bloodstream, do and this in turn sets up an accumulating immune reaction.  It is little wonder that malassezia dermatitis is evident when there are so many animals with such compromised gastro-intestinal tracts.  Re-establishment of the microbial balance is necessary, to help reduce inflammation and restore equilibrium.  Studies show that the microbial balance can now affect whole body health - or disease.   We recommend the use of MicroMed’s Immediate Care Probiotic, for a period of two months to re-establish the correct balance of microbes in order to outcompete and deter detrimental organisms from taking hold.

 

DESCRIPTION:

Dermatitis is a generalisation of any skin condition whereby there is inflammation present, and will continue to be used until such time as a diagnosis is given where a more specific term can be applied.  There is a rising incidence of this condition, whereby there can be varied triggers such as different foods, environmental irritants which can range from your dog coming in contact with glyphosate spray on its daily walks, to wandering dew irritation, to pollen irritation or insect bites.  

SYMPTOMS: 

A dog with dermatitis usually displays itchiness (pruritus), scaling and inflammation where abnormal redness is evident.  Secondary bacterial or fungal issues may arise due to any broken skin and instead of just being in the superficial layer of skin (epidermis) this could progress to the deeper layer of skin (dermis) where pus, or fluid discharge could occur. 

CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT:

Veterinary medicine recommends identifying and avoiding the causative component, and will often prescribe cortico-steroids or other drugs. 

MicroMed Note: Dermatitis is a sign of a system out of balance.  If we determine where this imbalance originates it is likely to have begun in the gut, through a process of microbial alteration, leading to inflammation and possibly this in turn leading to a Leaky Gut, also known as Intestinal Permeability.  This is where the gut becomes too permeable and substances that should not gain access to the bloodstream, do and this in turn sets up an accumulating immune reaction.  It is little wonder that dermatitis is evident when there are so many animals with such compromised gastro-intestinal tracts.  Re-establishment of the microbial balance is necessary, to help reduce inflammation and restore equilibrium.  Studies show that the microbial balance can now affect whole body health - or disease.   We recommend the use of MicroMed’s Immediate Care Probiotic, for a period of two months to re-establish the correct balance of microbes in order to to deter detrimental organisms from taking hold.

 From a natural medicine perspective where there is inflammation on the outside there will be inflammation on the inside and this must be addressed through improving the diet, in particular, introducing bone broth to the diet, with its high collagen content for repair.  In addition, re-establishing microbial balance is imperative.

Bone broth can help repair a very common issue in dogs today and that is Leaky Gut.  Leaky Gut can be caused by gut dysbiosis (or imbalance of gut bacteria), inflammation and scientific evidence now suggests that Leaky Gut can also be caused by antibiotics, steroids, and NSAID's.   Approximately seventy percent of the immune system is found in the gut tissues so it is little wonder that if the gut is impaired and inflamed, there will be issues. The gut must be repaired and the beneficial microbes re-established.

 

DESCRIPTION:

Once this condition has presented, there can be one or more than one lesion arise.  The area may become hyper pigmented, or darkened skin on the lesion and depending on the progression of the condition, the centre will often be moist and inflamed, sometimes with an ulcer or covered with a scab. There is a higher prevalence in male dogs older than five years although this condition can manifest in any breed and age or gender.  Certain dog breeds can be more susceptible including Doberman Pinshers, Golden Retrievers, Irish Setters, Labradors, German Shepherds and Great Danes. The cause could be bacterial or fungal initially creating the itch, or mites can be implicated, or it can even begin with boredom in the dog whereby psychogenic or obsessive licking is present, negating a resolve. A component of this cycle is the endorphin (the 'feel good' brain chemical) release upon licking, that makes the dog feel better.   

SYMPTOMS:

If your dog is continually licking a particular area, without respite it seems, and often on the front of the lower leg, rendering it unable to heal, and continuing the cycle of itching-licking and minor discomfort, this is aural lick dermatitis.  

CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT:

Cortico-steroids are often employed initially however if the condition does not resolve testing should be undertaken to investigate whether there is a deeper, underlying cause.

MicroMed Note: Acral lick granuloma or aural lick dermatitis is a sign of a system out of balance.  If we determine where this imbalance originates it is likely to have begun in the gut, through a process of microbial alteration, leading to inflammation and possibly this in turn leading to a Leaky Gut, also known as Intestinal Permeability.  This is where the gut becomes too permeable and substances that should not gain access to the bloodstream, do and this in turn sets up an accumulating immune reaction.  It is little wonder that aural lick granuloma or dermatitis are evident when there are so many animals with such compromised gastro-intestinal tracts.  Re-establishment of the microbial balance is necessary, to help reduce inflammation and restore equilibrium.  Studies show that the microbial balance can now affect whole body health - or disease.   We recommend the use of MicroMed’s Immediate Care Probiotic, for a period of two months to re-establish the correct balance of microbes in order to to deter detrimental organisms from taking hold.

DESCRIPTION: Classic fungal infection, not caused by a parasite or a worm as some believe, and often with a circular shape, hence ‘ring’ shaped patch.  These can occur anywhere on the body however more prevalent on the head, paws, ears and forelegs.  The area will appear inflamed, scaly and hair loss will often occur.  You need to be aware that as a fungal condition, mild ringworm infections, may only cause hair loss, dryness and itching, without redness or scabs.

TREATMENT: This is a contagious condition and should therefore be contained as quickly as possible, and your dog isolated.  Caution should be taken as this condition can be transferred between dogs and humans.  Veterinary treatment involves using anti-fungals, either as creams or orally.

MicroMed Note: Ringworm is a sign of a system out of balance.  In Chinese medicine, it is believed this is a ‘stagnation’ issue and therefore a good amount of exercise is recommended every day.  If we determine where this imbalance originates it is likely to have begun in the gut, through a process of microbial alteration, leading to inflammation and possibly this in turn leading to a Leaky Gut, also known as Intestinal Permeability.  This is where the gut becomes too permeable and substances that should not gain access to the bloodstream, do and this in turn sets up an accumulating immune reaction.  It is little wonder that ringworm is an issue when there are so many animals with such compromised gastro-intestinal tracts.  Re-establishment of the microbial balance is necessary, to help reduce inflammation and restore equilibrium.  Studies show that the microbial balance can now affect whole body health - or disease.  We recommend using MicroMed for Dogs Oral Probiotic from our Immediate Care range to re-establish the healthy microbes, and help prevent pathogens from taking hold..

 

DESCRIPTION: Classic fungal infection, not caused by a parasite or a worm as some believe, and often with a circular shape, hence ‘ring’ shaped patch.  These can occur anywhere on the body however more prevalent on the head, paws, ears and forelegs.  The area will appear inflamed, scaly and hair loss will often occur.  You need to be aware that as a fungal condition, mild ringworm infections, may only cause hair loss, dryness and itching, without redness or scabs.

TREATMENT: This is a contagious condition and should therefore be contained as quickly as possible, and your dog isolated.  Caution should be taken as this condition can be transferred between dogs and humans.  Veterinary treatment involves using anti-fungals, either as creams or orally.

MicroMed Note: Ringworm is a sign of a system out of balance.  In Chinese medicine, it is believed this is a ‘stagnation’ issue and therefore a good amount of exercise is recommended every day.  If we determine where this imbalance originates it is likely to have begun in the gut, through a process of microbial alteration, leading to inflammation and possibly this in turn leading to a Leaky Gut, also known as Intestinal Permeability.  This is where the gut becomes too permeable and substances that should not gain access to the bloodstream, do and this in turn sets up an accumulating immune reaction.  It is little wonder that ringworm is an issue when there are so many animals with such compromised gastro-intestinal tracts.  Re-establishment of the microbial balance is necessary, to help reduce inflammation and restore equilibrium.  Studies show that the microbial balance can now affect whole body health - or disease.  We recommend using MicroMed for Dogs Oral Probiotic from our Immediate Care range to re-establish the healthy microbes, and help prevent pathogens from taking hold..

 

DESCRIPTION:

Hair loss, either partial or complete, can be caused by many health issues, and if itching is present this should be investigated first.  Most dogs develop the hair loss (acquired alopecia) as opposed to congenital alopecia where the dog is born with hair loss, both of which can be inflammatory or not.  Causes could be from a traumatic event, a burn or more rare - poisoning, from thallium, mercury or iodine. Other inflammatory causes may be bacterial, fungal or from mites, or allergies may also cause this condition.  There is usually another condition present that is being masked by the alopecia hence why testing is important.

SYMPTOMS:

Complete or partial loss of hair from any part of the body outside of the normal seasonal, shedding of the coat.  

CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT:

Testing for underlying hormonal or metabolic issues, and protein deficiency should always be performed by a veterinarian if at all possible.  Many dogs will lose hair due to stress, poor nutrition or health issues. 

MicroMed Note: Alopecia is a sign of a system out of balance.  If we determine where this imbalance originates it is likely to have begun in the gut, through a process of microbial alteration, leading to inflammation and possibly this in turn leading to a Leaky Gut, also known as Intestinal Permeability.  This is where the gut becomes too permeable and substances that should not gain access to the bloodstream, do, and this in turn sets up an accumulating immune reaction.  Re-establishment of the microbial balance is necessary, to help reduce inflammation and restore equilibrium.  Studies show that the microbial balance can now affect whole body health - or disease.   Re-establishing the microbial balance where it is often missing is an important step being that the gut and microbiome of the skin are one of the most important foundations of good health.  Often we do not realise this has been disrupted until an implicating condition develops. 

 

DESCRIPTION:

AKA acute moist dermatitis, hotspots are usually small areas of inflammation, and irritation usually also occurring internally, which of course, cannot be seen and therefore the extent of the problem is often not fully comprehended.  Hotspots will always be ‘hot’ to the touch, hence the name. 

 CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT:

The preferred course of treatment is often steroids and sometimes antibiotics. 

MicroMed Note: Hot spots are a sign of a system out of balance.  If we determine where this imbalance originates it is likely to have begun in the gut, through a process of microbial alteration, leading to inflammation and possibly this in turn leading to a Leaky Gut, also known as Intestinal Permeability.  This is where the gut becomes too permeable and substances that should not gain access to the bloodstream, do and this in turn sets up an accumulating immune reaction.  It is little wonder that hot spots are evident when there are so many animals with such compromised gastro-intestinal tracts.  Re-establishment of the microbial balance is necessary, to help reduce inflammation and restore equilibrium.  Studies show that the microbial balance can now affect whole body health - or disease.   We recommend the use of MicroMed’s Immediate Care Probiotic, on an ongoing basis to re-establish the correct balance of microbes to deter detrimental organisms from taking hold.

 

DESCRIPTION

Mites live in the hair follicles and sebaceous glands (that’s the glands that produce an oily and fatty substance called sebum to moisturise the hair and skin) of a number of mammals.  In dogs the mite is referred to as Demodex canis by vets, and a diagnosis of Canine demodicosis may be given.  There is also the presence of a sarcoptes mite but it is rare in NZ dogs. Its fairly easy to recognize the sore-covered, often hairless patches, or lesions, that can appear anywhere on the body a dog, that represent mange.  As it spreads, alopecia usually develops (loss of hair), with redness of the skin, scaling and in severe cases, the sore-encrusted look. 

If the immune system is strong, and the hosts body has healthy numbers of naturally occurring beneficial microbes present, it is possible for mites to live on the animal and not create any problems.   However this has become a rarity with our animals today due to the over-use of pharmaceutical medicines and environmental toxins. 

There has been little research done on the pathway and specific method by which the mite successfully inhabits the animal, however there was a study conducted in 2014, by Abu-Samra and Y.A. Shuaib.  Although the subjects of this study were cattle, I would argue the same mechanisms apply on dogs (and horses).  This study demonstrated that ‘pathogenic and opportunistic bacteria facilitated the establishment of Demodix mites in the lesions produced, and provided an excellent micro-climate for the mites to propagate and reproduce, resulting in severe and progressive disease’.  

But, here’s the exciting stuff - the method to me appears profound!  When the mite initially burrows into the skin, it has in its gut and attached to its body, pathogenic bacteria which are then excreted into that same hair follicle burrow.  These bacteria are considered secondary invaders.  What then occurs is these same bacteria produce substances called ‘invasins’ - think green slime - These ‘invasins’ break down the host animal’s own defence systems.  They manage to do this because the detrimental bacteria’s enzyme systems damage the physical matrix of the hosts tissues and intercellular spaces, thereby preventing the hosts immune system from stopping the spread of the pathogen.  To add insult to injury, they all the while rob iron from the host, affecting the oxygenation of the body.  

 

TREATMENT

To make matters even worse, these little bad ‘uns possess, and are able to very quickly acquire, resistance to many anti-microbial agents that may be used against them.  This is where MicroMed formulations are invaluable.  Delivering an army of millions of beneficial micro-organisms which create an environment unsuitable for the existence of the pathogenic bacteria. This means those nasty mites, without their symbiotic friends in the form of detrimental bad buddy bacteria, will be unable to take hold and create the environment necessary to invade the body.   The consequence - no mange - let me repeat - no mange! 

If you are considering using a conventional insecticidal treatment for a mite infestation in your beloved pet, please understand you may be further damaging your pet’s ability to overcome the mite, by killing not only the mange, but the beneficial microbes also. When this occurs, detrimental bacteria colonise faster than beneficial bacteria.  It is in my opinion, a major contributor to the rising incidence of fungal and bacterial infection today.  So if you have used any of these afore-mentioned medications please consider reestablishing the beneficial bacteria and fungi and other microbes with MicroMed formulations - putting back what should be there naturally.

Miliary Dermatitis

Description: Dermatitis is regarded as the second most common condition in cats after flea allergy dermatitis. Dermatitis refers to the reaction that occurs as a result of something present in your cats environment such as pollen, grass, dust mites, insect bites, glyphosate, mould, food, etc.Symptoms: A cat suffering with Dermatitis will display signs of chronic itchiness, and inflammation will be evident. A sign of this condition could be that they often scratch their head or neck, or chew at their paws or at the base of their tail, skin lesions may be present anywhere on their body, over-grooming themselves, or hair loss. Another common symptom is a red and crusty rash around the head, neck and/or back, sometimes with intense itching (pruritis) - this is known as miliary dermatitis.Conventional Treatment: usually anti-inflammatory or immune-modulatory drugs are administered, often the steroids prednisone or prednisolone.  Cyclosporine may be used if a cat does not tolerate or respond well to steroids, and occasionally anti-histamines will be trialled.  In the case of integrative vets, essential fatty acids may be trialled.  Allergen-specific immuno-therapy may be considered also.MicroMed Note: Dermatitis is a sign of a system out of balance.  If we determine where this imbalance originates it is likely to have begun in the gut, through a process of microbial alteration, leading to inflammation and possibly this in turn leading to a Leaky Gut, also known as Intestinal Permeability.  This is where the gut becomes too permeable and substances that should not gain access to the bloodstream, do and this in turn sets up an accumulating immune reaction.  It is little wonder that dermatitis are evident when there are so many animals with such compromised gastro-intestinal tracts.  Re-establishment of the microbial balance is necessary, to help reduce inflammation and restore equilibrium.  Studies show that the microbial balance can now affect whole body health - or disease so this can be a first step on the path back to good health, using MicroMed’s Oral Probiotic on an ongoing basis or for preventative or acute situations.   

 

Minor Bacterial Infection/Superficial Pyoderma

Description: Minor bacterial infections usually occur as a direct result of a pre-existing skin condition such as dermatitis, or when the infected area has had recent trauma to the upper layers of the skin or hair follicles, such as a cat or flea bite. Cats have both good and bad bacteria in their saliva, and when they get a cat bite, or when they simply chew at their own skin, the area can become infected with bad bacteria which will then multiply. This can often cause swelling, inflammation, and red/itchy lesions, and make the area more prone to infection.Symptoms: Symptoms of a minor bacterial infection can include any of the following:  indigestion, weepy eyes and nose, aversion to food and/or drink, skin abscesses, swellings or bumps on the skin, lesions and wounds.Conventional Treatment: Pyoderma has become progressively more difficult to treat with the emergence of antibiotic resistance and methicillin and multi-drug resistant bacteria so speaking with your vet about alternatives is always recommended.MicroMed Note: Bacterial infections are a sign of a system out of balance.  If we determine where this imbalance originates it is likely to have begun in the gut, through a process of microbial alteration, leading to inflammation and possibly this in turn leading to a Leaky Gut, also known as Intestinal Permeability.  This is where the gut becomes too permeable and substances that should not gain access to the bloodstream, do and this in turn sets up an accumulating immune reaction.  It is little wonder that detrimental bacterial infections are evident when there are so many animals with such compromised gastro-intestinal tracts.  Re-establishment of the microbial balance is necessary, to help reduce inflammation, and outcompete detrimental bacteria and restore equilibrium.  Studies show that the microbial balance can now affect whole body health - or disease - so this can be a first step on the path back to good health, using MicroMed’s Oral Probiotic on an ongoing basis or for preventative or acute situations.   

 

Dry, Flaky Skin

Description: Dry, flaky skin is found in some cats especially during the winter months, when the skin is more vulnerable and therefore prone to dandruff, dryness, etc. It is usually no cause for concern, however it could also be a sign of inadequate nutrition, a reaction to shampoos or something present in the cats environment, or it could be due to an underlying health issue.Symptoms: Dandruff, dry patches/scabs, or skin flaking off when brushed.Conventional Treatment: medicated shampooMicroMed Note: Dry, flaky skin is a sign of a system out of balance.  If we determine where this imbalance originates it is likely to have begun in the gut, through a process of microbial alteration, leading to inflammation and possibly this in turn leading to a Leaky Gut, also known as Intestinal Permeability.  This is where the gut becomes too permeable and substances that should not gain access to the bloodstream, do and this in turn sets up an accumulating immune reaction.  It is little wonder that compromised skin health is evident when there are so many animals with such compromised gastro-intestinal tracts.  Re-establishment of the microbial balance is necessary, to help reduce inflammation and restore equilibrium.  Studies show that the microbial balance can now affect whole body health - or disease so this can be a first step on the path back to good health, using MicroMed’s Oral Probiotic on an ongoing basis or for preventative or acute situations.   

 

Feline Eosinophilic Granuloma

Description: Eosinophilic Granuloma is an inflammatory skin condition in cats, showing as raised ulcers or inflamed lesions anywhere on the cats body. This can be as a result of anything from a bacterial infection, food allergies, a reaction to something in the cats environment, or even flea bites.Symptoms: These red, raised lesions or ulcers, and are most commonly seen around the cats mouth, nose, lips, paws or thighs, and can be itchy and inflamed, causing irritation, head shaking or scratching.Conventional Treatment: cortico-steroids are the most commonly employed agent for this condition.MicroMed Note: Feline Eosinophilic Granulomas are a sign of a system out of balance.  If we determine where this imbalance originates it is likely to have begun in the gut, through a process of microbial alteration, leading to inflammation and possibly this in turn leading to a Leaky Gut, also known as Intestinal Permeability.  This is where the gut becomes too permeable and substances that should not gain access to the bloodstream, do and this in turn sets up an accumulating immune reaction.  It is little wonder that inflammatory issues are evident when there are so many animals with such compromised gastro-intestinal tracts.  Re-establishment of the microbial balance is necessary, to help reduce inflammation and restore equilibrium.  Studies show that the microbial balance can now affect whole body health - or disease so this can be a first step on the path back to good health, using MicroMed’s Oral Probiotic on an ongoing basis or for preventative or acute situations.    

Feline Acne

Description: Feline acne is an inflammatory condition appearing on or around the cats chin, it is primarily shown as pimples or blackheads, but can escalate to full blown inflammation across the chin/neck/face area. This condition can have many possible causes, from stress, side effects from medication, a reaction to their food or water, an underlying condition, grooming products etc.Symptoms: In most cases, the symptoms are quite mild, usually one or two spots, however if left untreated it can cause redness and bacterial infection across the cats chin/neck/face, and often causes painful lesions, alopecia, and crusty sores.Conventional Treatment: specific anti-seborrheic shampoo may first be recommended, secondly, antibacterial or antifungal shampoos may sometimes be prescribed if secondary infection has occurred.MicroMed Note: Feline Acne is a sign of a system out of balance.  If we determine where this imbalance originates it is likely to have begun in the gut, through a process of microbial alteration, leading to inflammation and possibly this in turn leading to a Leaky Gut, also known as Intestinal Permeability.  This is where the gut becomes too permeable and substances that should not gain access to the bloodstream, do and this in turn sets up an accumulating immune reaction.  It is little wonder that acne is evident when there are so many animals with such compromised gastro-intestinal tracts.  Re-establishment of the microbial balance is necessary, to help reduce inflammation and restore equilibrium.  Studies show that the microbial balance can now affect whole body health - or disease so this can be a first step on the path back to good health, using MicroMed’s Oral Probiotic on an ongoing basis or for preventative or acute situations.   

 

 Hair Loss (Alopecia)

Description: All cats shed their coat, however Alopecia is a syndrome describing abnormal, excessive hair loss on the cat’s body, and can occur as a result of an underlying condition or infection. It can be a sign of an underlying health issue, such as stress, allergies, poor grooming or nutrition, or a bacterial or fungal infection. There are also certain feline diseases that can directly slow and/or inhibit the growth of the hair follicles, or diseases that can cause direct damage to the hair ‘shaft’ or follicle; these include the common, inflammatory bacterial, fungal, or parasitic infections.Symptoms: Partial and total lack of hair in areas where it is usually present, can sometimes cause excessive itching.Conventional Treatment: determination of the underlying condition, be it flea allergy, parasites, ringworm, hypothyroidism, stress, allergies.  One the cause has been established, through examination or testing, then appropriate treatment can be given.MicroMed Note: Alopecia is a sign of a system out of balance.  If we determine where this imbalance originates it is likely to have begun in the gut, through a process of microbial alteration, leading to inflammation and possibly this in turn leading to a Leaky Gut, also known as Intestinal Permeability.  This is where the gut becomes too permeable and substances that should not gain access to the bloodstream, do and this in turn sets up an accumulating immune reaction.  It is little wonder that allergies and alopecia are evident when there are so many animals with such compromised gastro-intestinal tracts.  Re-establishment of the microbial balance is necessary, to help reduce inflammation and restore equilibrium.  Studies show that the microbial balance can now affect whole body health - or disease so this can be a first step on the path back to good health, using MicroMed’s Oral Probiotic on an ongoing basis or for preventative or acute situations.   

Ringworm

Description: Ringworm is a type of fungal infection, effecting many animals including cats, more commonly cats less than a year old. The type of fungi which is responsible for this condition are called dermatophytes. Dermatophytes are a kind of microscopic organism, originating in soil, however they can also live as parasites beyond their home environment, ie, on your cat’s skin. The parasites responsible for ringworm settle in ‘droves’ on the cat’s skin, causing inflammation and dermatitis, presenting itself through all sorts of symptoms. Ringworm is treatable, but highly contagious and can spread to other pets as well as humans, so bear this in mind if you have more than one pet in your household.Symptoms: It can cause circular areas of rashes or hair loss on the cat’s skin, a broken or stubbly coat, and alter the colour of your pet’s fur and skin. It can also appear as scaly/crusty lesions or inflamed patches of skin which can cause them to excessively groom and scratch, thus infecting their claws or nails.Conventional Treatment: medicated shampoo or dips can be administeredMicroMed Note: Ringworm is a sign of a system out of balance.  If we determine where this imbalance originates it is likely to have begun in the gut, through a process of microbial alteration, leading to inflammation and possibly this in turn leading to a Leaky Gut, also known as Intestinal Permeability.  This is where the gut becomes too permeable and substances that should not gain access to the bloodstream, do and this in turn sets up an accumulating immune reaction.  It is little wonder that ringworm and other signs of microbial imbalance are evident when there are so many animals with such compromised gastro-intestinal tracts.  Re-establishment of the microbial balance is necessary, to help reduce inflammation and restore equilibrium.  Studies show that the microbial balance can now affect whole body health - or disease so this can be a first step on the path back to good health, using MicroMed’s Oral Probiotic on an ongoing basis or for preventative or acute situations.   

Sporotrichosis

Description: An infection of the skin, caused by a type of fungus that can spread from cats to humans. This rare fungus is called Sporothrix schenckii, and is of concern especially to those with a compromised immune system. Pet owners should be particularly careful in regards to hygiene and receiving quick, appropriate treatment for their pet’s when dealing with this condition, and a veterinary diagnosis is advised to rule out this condition.Symptoms: Sporotrichosis usually presents itself as small lesions on or around the cats nose and face, they are hard and may leak fluid. They can often occur as a result of a scratch from a cat fight, or from licking at the effected area, and therefore transferring the infection to other parts of the body.Conventional Treatment: the treatment of choice is ItraconazoleMicroMed Note: Once veterinary has been undertaken then commencement of a probiotic is recommended as your cat’s immune system had to be compromised to have contracted sporotrichosis.  Sporotrichosis is a sign of a system out of balance.  If we determine where this imbalance originates it is likely to have begun in the gut, through a process of microbial alteration, leading to inflammation and possibly this in turn leading to a Leaky Gut, also known as Intestinal Permeability.  This is where the gut becomes too permeable and substances that should not gain access to the bloodstream, do and this in turn sets up an accumulating immune reaction.  It is little wonder that fungal pathogens arise when there are so many animals with such compromised gastro-intestinal tracts.  Re-establishment of the microbial balance is necessary, to help reduce inflammation and restore equilibrium.  Studies show that the microbial balance can now affect whole body health - or disease  - so this can be a first step on the path back to good health, using MicroMed’s Oral Probiotic on an ongoing basis or for preventative or acute situations.   

  

Stud Tail (Tail Gland Hyperplasia)

Description: Stud tail occurs when the cat has an overactive sebaceous gland at the base of their tail, causing excessive sebum secretion, usually meant to keep the hair follicles soft and healthy.Symptoms: Waxy excretions at the base of the tail, resulting in hair loss or clumped hair, and often crusty, dry lesions.Conventional Treatment: this involves removal of excess sebum and hence prevention of comedone formation and secondary infection. An antibacterial wash, such as chlorhexidine, can be used for this purpose, initially two or three times daily.MicroMed Note: secondary infections are a sign of a system out of balance.  If we determine where this imbalance originates it is likely to have begun in the gut, through a process of microbial alteration, leading to inflammation and possibly this in turn leading to a Leaky Gut, also known as Intestinal Permeability, giving rise to many health issues.  This is where the gut becomes too permeable and substances that should not gain access to the bloodstream, do and this in turn sets up an accumulating immune reaction.  It is little wonder that conditions such as Stud Tail are evident when there are so many animals with such compromised gastro-intestinal tracts.  Re-establishment of the microbial balance is necessary, to help reduce inflammation and restore equilibrium.  Studies show that the microbial balance can now affect whole body health - or disease so this can be a first step on the path back to good health, using MicroMed’s Oral Probiotic on an ongoing basis or for preventative or acute situations. 

Yeast Infections/Malassezia Dermatitis/Candida

Description: Yeast infections are actually caused by fungus, and are most prevalent in cats with pre-existing conditions, as they are more vulnerable to these kinds of infections. A yeast infection can present itself in many different ways, and if left untreated can definitely worsen.Symptoms: Yeast infections most commonly present themselves as candida, malassezia, ear infections, and can be one or more of thousands of yeast of fungal conditions.Conventional Treatment: Various antifungal agents for yeast skin infections include topical azoles (e.g., miconazole, ketoconazole, clotrimazole, and climbazole), chlorhexidine preferentially in combination with azole agents for synergistic activity. MicroMed Note: Malassezia is a sign of a system out of balance.  If we determine where this imbalance originates it is likely to have begun in the gut, through a process of microbial alteration, leading to inflammation and possibly this in turn leading to a Leaky Gut, also known as Intestinal Permeability.  This is where the gut becomes too permeable and substances that should not gain access to the bloodstream, do and this in turn sets up an accumulating immune reaction.  It is little wonder that dermatitis are evident when there are so many animals with such compromised gastro-intestinal tracts.  Re-establishment of the microbial balance is necessary, to help reduce inflammation and restore equilibrium.  Studies show that the microbial balance can now affect whole body health - or disease so this can be a first step on the path back to good health, using MicroMed’s Oral Probiotic on an ongoing basis or for preventative or acute situations.   

DESCRIPTION: Seedy toe is the stretching of the white line, caused by the hoof wall, at the toe, pulling away from the coffin bone.  The most common of the hoof afflictions, the white line is compromised (either by excess hoof growth (hoof toe too long or heels too high), horse shoe nails or sub-clinical laminitis, namely rotation.  So Seedy Toe is a physical condition.  It only becomes an infectious condition as a secondary issue, whereupon bacteria and subsequent fungi invades. The fungi commonly appear in the toe area, hence the name, but can appear anywhere in the hoof wall.  Often discovered by farriers who uncover a small area of rot that then reveals a greater degree of damage on investigation.    

TREATMENT: After cleaning with an antibacterial wash a wire brush or a hoof pick can be employed to get into all nooks and crannies.  The modern approach at this point is to use cotton strips soaked in antibacterial wash to completely submerge the hoof areas for around half an hour.  Caution is recommended for treatments using pure Formalin or copper sulphate, as there is implications for health and liver function once these are absorbed into the bloodstream from the live tissues being treated. 

Dietary intervention may be needed if there are nutritional deficiencies. 

CASE STUDY: “When I tried MicroMed For Horses I was relieved to know that there was nothing in it which would harm the animal and I was blown away by how effective it was! Within a month (mid winter) my own herd of seven horses was entirely free of hoof infections, namely seedy toe, and the product cleared up rain scald and mud fever as well.”  

(Sue Court. PhD. EarthHorse Aotearoa www.earthhorse.co.nz)

DESCRIPTION: There are two types of white line disease.  First, separation from the hoof wall from the underlying laminae at the white line, often starts as a result of hoof wall stress due to poor foot conformation or trimming (eg, long toe, underrun heels) and can start at the toes, quarters, or heel.   This is termed Seedy Toe.  This results in a cavity that can fill with crumbling material, compromising the integrity of the hoof wall, and allowing subsequent opportunity for anaerobic, pathogenic bacteria and fungi to infiltrate these fissures in the hoof wall.  Lameness may be present in severe cases, in which loss of support of the distal phalanx results in displacement similar to that seen in laminitis. 

Secondly, white line disease can occur when there is compromised integrity of the white line, and infection occurs, which can be due to approximately 41 different microbes, as reported by Cornell University.   

 

TREATMENT: initially the hoof will need to be trimmed to remove the damaged (crumbly) hoof wall, taking care not to damage the sole or the laminae, to allow light and air into the area.  The diagnostic evaluation includes a thorough physical examination and radiographs to assess the extent of separation of the hoof wall and any displacement of the distal phalanx. For treatment, corrective trimming is critical to remove abnormal stresses on the hoof wall.  Next  is removal of the entire extent of the separated hoof wall to the point that firm, healthy adhesion of the hoof wall to the underlying laminae is required.  Topical treatment with tincture of iodine is commonly performed daily for at least a week. Additionally, commercial equine foot formulations that produce chlorine dioxide can also be used. Corrective shoeing is critical to provide adequate support to the remaining foot, while removing stress from the affected regions; a heart bar or egg bar shoe in combination with a resilient putty in the caudal two-thirds of the sole (to provide distal phalanx support) may be necessary if displacement of the distal phalanx is a concern. 

 

Treatment with a very powerful formulation such as MicroMed for Horses, with over 80 different strains of microbes to re-establish beneficial bacteria, and fungi is recommended.   This can also offset any further deterioration in the hoof, leading to secondary or recurring infection.  

DESCRIPTION: This infection usually manifests with all the signs of mud fever, or rain scald, and is in fact one of the bacteria attributed to mud fever and rain scald however, this bacteria has now formed a resistance to the traditional treatment with the pharmacological drug Methicillin and its associated family of drugs.  If this drug has been prescribed to your horse and the infection has not resolved, or there is a non-healing wound, it may be that it has methicillin-resistant S. Aureus (MRSA) present.  Therefore, a bacterial culture should be confirmed and an alternative treatment should be sought.  Interestingly, equine MRSA can be contracted from humans, particularly those who work in the health sector, and be passed to horses from their nasal passages where the bacteria often reside.   

TREATMENT: Vets are now turning to hydrogels or bleach shampoos  

Description: So for those who love the science, the equine form of ringworm usually contracted is Trichophyton equinum,  however there is also a soil-borne ringworm fungi Microsporum gypseum that horses can also contract.  All of these are highly contagious so isolation while treating the animal is advised.  If your vet has diagnosed which genus species it is, and its the soil-borne family Microsporum gypsum, it is recommended to re-establish the healthy microbes in your horses environment as well.   Where a horse roots around or rolls, in the paddocks, and stables and on it’s tack, are all important areas to address.  All of the above fungi - come under the umbrella dermatophytes which are considered parasitic.  They eat the keratin of the skin, the protein that forms the structure of hair and epidermal skin cells, hence why your horse can end up losing hair and skin!   
Symptoms are crusting, usually but not always, circular lesions anywhere on the body, and occasionally these lesions can look hive-like.  Usually ringworm will only attack an animal who is immune-compromised, commonly seen in older or younger horses, or dogs.   
Treatment is an absolute given.  Anti-fungal treatments can be extremely harsh on an animal, both in terms of liver function and destroying any naturally-occurring organisms that may have established a healthy balance on the skin.  Therefore it is recommended that once veterinary treatment has finished with the anti-fungal that gentle liver detoxification is undertaken.  For some who may be compelled to use the diluted bleach option, please be aware chlorine also kills all naturally occurring organisms not to mention the side effects of chlorine absorption through the skin.  Lime-sulphur dip is another treatment however the precise recipe for this must be followed, and it is reported to have a very ‘sulphurous’ smell.  Re-establishing the beneficial microbes after anti-fungals is crucial however, and it should be noted that re-establishing the balance of beneficial organisms, bacteria and fungi, works to eradicate the detrimental fungi. The beneficial microbes act to outcompete the detrimental organisms, thereby treating this condition.  Beneficial organisms disrupt communications between other detrimental organisms such that the fungi are unable to set up or maintain a network between cells, paramount for their survival.  

 If you have anti-fungal drugs in your cupboard please check if Ivermectin is an active ingredient in your medication.  This is a link to Dr Mercola’s Petcare, warning on Ivermectin, https://healthypets.mercola.com/sites/healthypets/archive/2013/03/06/ivermectin.aspx   It is particularly relevant for those of you who may be using it on larger animals and who have dogs on the property, as the dosage for larger animals is 50x higher than for dogs.  At this dose your dog will suffer Ivermectin toxicity and this can be a life-threatening situation if not addressed within 36 hours.  Warning signs are on the above link.  Also there are some breeds of dog who are multi-drug sensitive breeds - again see above link if you need clarification. 

Prevention

Strengthening the immune system is always indicated.  a very powerful way to achieve this is to re-establish the microbes using a commensal probiotic blend.  We recommend the Immediate Care range of MicroMed probiotics, as a primary priority followed by the herb astragalus, which can be used to this end, simply check with your vet first b before undertaking this supplement.  Turmeric mixed with your animals feed to ‘warm’ the ‘damp’ condition, may also be indicated.  Additionally, incorporating a gut repair supplement into your animals feed to look after the gut, where approx. 70% of your horses immunity is found, can help heal any predisposing Leaky Gut.    

DESCRIPTION: this is an auto-immune skin disorder, affecting the cell membranes of the horse’s epithelial cells - or skin cells.  The condition manifests initially as tiny, skin blisters which then peel off to reveal large areas of hair loss and grey, flaky skin.  Due to this, the horn production of hoof material, is affected, and therefore the coronary band is compromised, the hoof wall becomes flaky and loses its integrity.  As the condition progresses, the legs can fill up with fluid, causing stiffness and pain. 

TREATMENT:  early treatment is vital, and can involve a prescription of corticosteroids, vitamin E supplementation, and protection of the skin from insects and excessive sunlight.  Pemphigus foliaceus often requires long-term treatment, and some horses may need medication for the rest of their lives.   MicroMed recommends contacting your vet for this condition.  MicroMed probiotic sprays can be used in conjunction with veterinary treatment.

Veteran Farrier, Steve Norman reports, “I have probably seen more abscesses in the past few months than I have probably seen in any spring in the last 10 years”.  DESCRIPTION: Moisture and mud makes for soft feet, predisposing the hoof to injury from sharp rocks or other piercing environmental objects, or separations between the live sole and the horny sole.  Once a bruise, separation or penetration has occurred, bacteria can then infiltrate.  If there is insufficient beneficial bacteria present to overcome the pathogenic bacteria then infection will manifest.  Pus and serum are forced from inside the hard structure of the hoof, and out more often than not, through the coronet band or heel bulb.  If it is a mild abscess you may not even realise until your farrier finds a rotting hole in the sole or hoof wall.  Bear in mind a hoof abscess can be a warning sign of a laminitic episode, so addressing dietary intake is important.   Symptoms 

Slight or intermittent lameness, that progresses to no weight-bearing on the affected leg More weight carried on the toe to protect the heel ‘Hotness’ in the affected hoof Noticeable increase in the digital pulse on checking the fetlock, strongest on the side of the abscess Leg, heel bulb or hoof may swell.If the abscess is not drained it may become purulent when it bursts through the coronary band.  If the horse has been ‘quicked’ or has a ‘hot nail’ in the laminar corium,  or a nail in the sole-wall junction, it is recommended a veterinarian be advised and antibiotics will likely be recommended.It is the enzymes from the bacteria that destroys the surrounding tissue at the localised site that then creates a grey/black pus generally associated with hoof abscesses.   

 TREATMENT:  

Conventional treatment: lancing the abscess such that it may drain is the usual recourse. Antibiotics may be given afterwards to prevent any further infection.

dietary Treatment: Restricting sugar and starch to no more than 10% of your horse's intake, is recommended, along with a veterinarian test to rule out insulin resistance (I.R.), aka Equine Metabolic Syndrome (EMS) or chronic laminitis.  

Micromed Note: Caught early, re-establishment of beneficial bacteria, to overcome the pathogenic bacteria.  If the abscess has progressed to fill or swell the leg, a farrier or vet must drain the leg as soon as possible. Once drained, re-establishing the beneficial bacteria is advantageous.  Veterinary advisor Karen Coumbe reports, “It’s usually unneccessary to treat pus in the foot with antibiotics, as its better to drain the abscess to eliminate infection, particularly since antibiotics do not penetrate properly into the hoof and horn of the horse’s foot.There is now a move away from ‘soaking the foot’ and instead localising treatment to just the ‘affected area, with soak bandages or poultices’.  This practice ensures that the whole hoof doesn’t become too soft, weakening the integrity of the hoof structure and giving rise to other conditions down the track.  Re-establishing the beneficial microbes with MicroMed's Immediate Care range spray-on Probiotic, works to re-establish balance and outcompete detrimental organisms setting up an environment where pathogens are unsuccessful at infiltrating.  

  DESCRIPTION: the keratin-loving bacteria Spherophorus neaophorus, and the sheep foot rot organism fusobacterium necrophorumis are usually responsible. 

These organisms attack the softened tissues of the frog, causing it to rot.   

The predisposing factors can be : 

Imbalance of microbes on the skin and hoovesUnhygienic environment  Overgrown or contracted hooves The wearing of Hoof Pads Inadequate exercise Previous history of Lameness  

SYMPTOMS; It is usual for a horse to be free from discomfort with milder cases of thrush however there may be mild discomfort on palpation around the frog and bulbs of the heel.  There can be a rotting noxious odor and blackish ooze found upon the frog, and this is commonly referred to as thrush. 

TREATMENT: traditional treatment involves trimming away the loose, diseased frog tissue and applying an antibacterial such as dilute bleach. Veterinarians often follow up with an applications of a mild astringent, such as Betadine®, or another anti-thrush product.   

MicroMed Note:

Re-establishment of the beneficial and commensal microbes is indicated as soon as possible, to prevent continuing bacterial infection and prevent re-occurrence.  We recommend MicroMed Spray-on Probiotic from the Immediate Care range for use for two months on your horse.

 

 

DESCRIPTION: Demodectic mange usually only presents in an immune-compromised horse, so attention should be given to establishing if there are any inflammatory processes at work in or on the body, such as gut dysbiosis or Leaky Gut or compromised immunity.  

SYMPTOMS: If your horse is suffering demodectic mange the usual presenting symptoms will be extreme itchiness, manifesting as foot stomping and rubbing against stationary structures, in addition to a horse who seems aggravated and stressed. There may be crusty scabs, flakes in the hair and secondary skin infections.    

CAUSES: Possible causal factors for demodectic mange infestation, evidence of weakened immunity can be due to lengthy use of glucocorticoids, Cushing’s Disease, nutritional deficiency, chronic disease such as liver disease, or undue stress.  If you suspect there could be issues, investigate further and treat these in combination with the mange.  Demodectic mange is the result of the bite from one of five mites, the most common being Demodex equi, which effects the whole body, but more commonly the shoulders, face and neck, and can cause hair loss.  The other common mites are demodex caballi, which prefers to live on the eyelid.  It is the relentless scratching and biting at the affected areas that then causes secondary infection to occur through penetration of pathogenic bacteria into compromised tissue.     

TREATMENT:  anti-inflammatory drugs, cortico-steroids and possibly antibiotics if there is secondary infection.  

Mites belong to a very specialised group that live in the hair follicles and sebaceous glands of a number of mammals.

If the immune system is strong, and the hosts body has healthy numbers of naturally occurring beneficial microbes present, it is possible for mites to live on the animal and not create any problems.   However this has become a rarity with our animals today due to the use of pharmaceutical medicines and environmental toxins that kill or inhibit the microbial balance.   

MicroMed Note: There has been little research done on the pathway and specific method by which the mite successfully inhabits the animal, however there was a study conducted in 2014, by Abu-Samra and Y.A. Shuaib.  Although the subjects of this study were cattle, I would argue the same mechanisms apply on horses and other mammals.  This study demonstrated that ‘pathogenic and opportunistic bacteria facilitated the establishment of Demodex mites in the lesions produced, and provided an excellent micro-climate for the mites to propagate and reproduce’.    

 But, here’s the exciting news - the method appears profound!  When the mite initially burrows into the skin, it has in its gut and attached to its body, pathogenic bacteria which are then excreted into that same hair follicle burrow.  These bacteria are considered secondary invaders.  What then occurs is these same bacteria produce substances called ‘invasins’ - think green slime - These ‘invasins’ break down the host animal’s own defence systems.  They manage to do this because the detrimental bacteria’s enzyme systems damage the physical matrix of the hosts tissues and intercellular spaces, thereby preventing the hosts immune system from stopping the spread of the pathogen.  To add insult to injury, they all the while rob iron from the host, affecting the oxygenation of the body.   To make matters even worse, they then possess, and are able to very quickly acquire, resistance to many anti-microbial agents that may be used against them.  This is where I believe MicroMed formulations are invaluable to re-establish the healthy microbes.  Delivering an army of millions of beneficial micro-organisms which create an environment unsuitable for the existence of the pathogenic bacteria. This means unwanted organisms, without their symbiotic friends in the form of detrimental bacteria, will be unable to take hold and create the environment necessary to invade the body.   Twice daily spraying with MicroMed's Immediate Care range, for a period of six weeks enables the pH of the beneficial bacteria's environment is be unsavoury for other microbes or deleterious organisms.

Please also be aware If you are considering using a conventional insecticidal treatment for a mite infestation in your beloved pet, please re-instate the beneficial microbial balance so your pet’s natural ability to overcome 'insults'.  Explained further - when you use anti-bacterials, anti-fungals or antibiotics, this destroys the beneficial, naturally occurring bacterial balance.  When this occurs, detrimental bacteria colonise faster than beneficial bacteria and in my opinion this is  a major contributor to the rising incidence of fungal and bacterial infection today so we need to counter the effect of these drugs when administered. 

(Also known as (Rain Rot, Pastern Dermititis, Dermatophilus congolensis,  Equine Dermatitis,  Lumpy Wool, Greasy Heel, Mycotic Dermatitis, Cracked Heel) & Streptothricosis).

Description: The usual signs of mud fever begin with damage to the skin or cracking of the skin, in the lower limbs, that then allow detrimental bacteria access to the lower layers of the dermis or skin where the infection is able to begin.  The area then becomes inflamed and thickens, before forming a crusty scab.   These scabs can travel from the pastern and up through the cannon bone, with the hair becoming matted with exudate, and often the horse will suffer associated hair loss.  If at this point your mud fever has not resolved it is important your horse is under the care of a vet.  As the condition progresses, it can result in a pus discharge and can cause the horse discomfort as the lower leg swells and becomes hot, resulting in lameness.

Mud fever is usually more common, but not restricted to, feathered breeds of horses and it also occurs in ponies and donkeys.  When the crusted scabs appear on the back, rump and face, this is called Rain Scald.

Rain Scald appears as crusted, moist mats of hair, where underneath there can be pus which is exudative.  The bacteria can actually remain behind the scabs for up to 42 months if not treated. 

 

Mud fever and rain scald are caused by a number of factors, most of which can be minimised or eradicated. 

Opportunistic bacteria and fungi : It was traditionally thought that mud fever was only due to the bacteria Dermatophilus congolensis, however now it is more accepted that there can be a number of different bacteria and fungi that can become involved in mud fever such as Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas species.  Dermatophilus congolensis is actually a bacteria and a fungus due to the fact that it is an actinomycete, which behaves as both, so a powerful probiotic blend of both beneficial bacteria and fungi can be a truly effective remedy in this situation.   Moist conditions are usually a prerequisite to the proliferation of the detrimental bacteria however crucially there are usually insufficient beneficial bacteria present both on the horse and in the environment.   If it is possible to avoid or minimise exposure to mud, morning dew in paddocks, heavy rainfall and even excessive leg washing if your horse is susceptible to mud fever and rain scald then this is helpful.  Interestingly, you often find leg washing recommended for mud fever however, heavy leg washing can remove the protective oil barrier on the skin, worsening the likelihood of succumbing to mud fever.  If a stall is an option, that would be preferable during the mud fever season, to enable a clean, dry and well-ventilated area for your horse.  The Hagyard Equine Medical Institute’s, Dr. Luke Fallon, says, “Horses that are constantly standing in a moist environment can develop defects involving the soft tissues associated with the hoof, heel bulbs, and coronet band. Defects of this nature can become an entry point for bacteria.” Insect bites from ticks and flies, allow detrimental bacteria to gain access through the damaged epidermis - the protective outer layer of skin.   Ringworm, the equine form usually contracted is Trichophyton equinum, however there is also a soil-borne ringworm fungi Microsporum gypsum that horses can also often contract.  All of these are highly contagious so isolation while treating the animal is advised.  If the vet has diagnosed which genus species it is, and its the soil-borne family Microsporum gypsum, we recommend liberally spraying Micromed for Horses where the horse stands, roots around or rolls, to re-establish the healthy organisms on and in the soil, as well as using on the horse, and liberally spraying equipment and bedding areas.  All of these fungi are parasitic, eating the keratin of the skin, the protein that forms the structure of hair and epidermal skin cells, which is why there can be bald patches with this condition.   UV damage either in the form of sunburn or photosensitisation can often occur, particularly in non-pigmented skin, however liver disease should be ruled out as a causative factor, as should grazing on clover, perennial ryegrass, and alfalfa (also known as lucerne). Liver disease in horses will be either acute or chronic; In acute liver failure, horses will become icteric (jaundiced) and if your horse exhibits yellowed mucus membranes such as the eye sclera and gums, it could well be the first sign they are in acute hepatic jaundice. Accompanying this there can be neurologic signs of the damaged liver’s inability to clear ammonia from the blood, causing hepatic encephalopathy, with symptoms such as depression, lethargy, persistent yawning, pica, or aggressiveness.  Urgent medical attention must be taught to avoid coma or death.  Horses experiencing chronic liver problems will lose also weight and develop photosensitivity or sunburn on the non-pigmented areas of their body, often initially perceived as mud fever. Mites - If it is a mite infestation, your horse will be stamping or rubbing themselves against things due to the itch, and although technically the mites do not pierce the skin and tunnel in as was previously thought, they instead create an allergic reaction, due to contact of their faeces on the skin.  This in turn creates an exudate which the mite then feeds on, the horses skin subsequently forms scabs, and secondary infection often results.   Rough or spiky vegetation and stubble fields, that may cause injury to the hoof or skin, giving rise to a bacterial or fungal infection.  Physical or chemical irritants such as straw bedding can aggravate some horses, particularly if there are certain allergens within the bedding and/or high ammonia within the deeper layers of the bedding.  Spraying with a powerful probiotic solution can offset this becoming a problem and not only is the ammonia broken down, the associated odour is decomposed into organic by-products, by the powerful nitrifying bacteria in MicroMed for Horses.  

MUD FEVER MIMICKING AS: 

Pastern and cannon leukocytoclastic vasculitis can look very much like mud fever, and can subsequently give rise to secondary bacterial infection and pastern dermatitis.   Equine Cushings Disease, also known as Pituitary Pars Intermedia Dysfunction, is where you may see mild coat changes initially, that can progress over time to more severe symptoms such as laminitis, recurrent infections and lethargy, so be vigilant when mud fever is recurring over time, to have Cushings ruled out by a veterinarian. Pemphigus foliaceous (PF), is a fairly rare auto-immune condition where the horse’s immune system starts to react to and break down its own skin.  Symptoms are crusting and scabby legs with or without itching and hypersensitive skin, initially mimicking mud fever.  Lesions can also appear on the face and abdomen with lower abdomenal swelling, over a period of around three months. If your horse becomes reluctant to move combined with a fever, depression, lethargy, anorexia, appears in pain and suffers weight loss, please do seek veterinarian advice.  Interestingly, although the cause of PF remains unclear, there are some veterinarians who believe drugs such as antibiotics, dewormers, vaccines, and some supplements have triggered a number of PF cases. 

TREATMENT:  chlorhexidine is often used, as is iodine, sudocream or antibiotics 

 

5 Top Tips for Mud Fever Prevention and Treatment 

Re-establish the healthy microbial balance on your horse, and in their environment, by spraying your horse and the areas they most often frequent, or stand around in, with MicroMed for Horses.  This is particularly recommended after a course of antibiotics or strong medications or where bleaches or disinfectants or anti-bacterials have been used, all of which impair or kill naturally occurring micro-organisms on your horse and/or in its environment. Try to remove your horse from muddy environments where possible, as moisture is the key to thriving detrimental organisms Spot the signs of mud fever or rain scald early by checking your horse daily if possible, in mud fever season.  This is best performed by running your hand over their skin, and especially in places where mud fever may be hiding, such as the feathers or folds of skin.  I’m sure you’ll agree your horse will let you know if there is a problem area! Try to clear your horse’s daily environment from all sources of detrimental grazing plants such as, buttercup, clover - in particular white clover, perennial ryegrass and alfalfa, (lucerne). Remove rough or spiky vegetation that may harm your horse and do not graze in stubble fields, as these may cause injury to the hoof or skin, giving rise to a bacterial or fungal infection.  

Please note mud fever and rain scald is contagious and can be transmitted  through flies, ticks, grooming equipment or tack, as well as between horses. 

 

Staphylococcus

Also known/diagnosed as…

- Staphylococcal Dermatitis

- Dermatophytosis

- Dermatophilosis

- Photosensitization

- Staphylococcal Pyoderma

Description: Staphylococus is a bacteria commonly found in New Zealand and naturally occurs in the environment and on farm animals, however where there is microbial or bacterial imbalance, staph infections can take hold. This can also be brought on by stress, poor nutrition or environmental conditions, trauma, overuse of antibiotics, parasitism or other skin conditions. Staphylococus is sometimes associated with folliculitis, furunculosis, scalded skin syndrome, and impetigo.Symptoms: Usually manifests as skin lesions.Conventional Treatment: various antibiotics may be given, mindful of the risk of antibiotic resistance.MicroMed Note: staphylococcus overgrowth is a sign of a microbial system out of balance on the skin, and often deeper than that. This may have occurred due to overuse of anti-microbial whereby if all bacteria are killed including beneficial microbes, this paves the way for pathogenic bacteria to take hold. If we determine where this imbalance originates it is likely to have begun in the gut, as well as the skin, through a process of microbial alteration, leading to inflammation and possibly this in turn leading to a Leaky Gut in the case of the gut, also known as Intestinal Permeability. This is where the gut becomes too permeable and substances that should not gain access to the bloodstream, do and this in turn sets up an accumulating immune reaction. It is little wonder that outbreaks of pathogenic bacteria are evident when there are so many animals with such compromised gastro-intestinal tracts. Re-establishment of the microbial balance is necessary, to help reduce inflammation, out-compete pathogens and restore equilibrium. Studies show that the microbial balance can now affect whole body health - or disease - so this can be a first step on the path back to good health, using MicroMed’s Oral Probiotic on an ongoing basis or for preventative or acute situations.

Scalded Skin Syndrome (SSS)

Description: This syndrome is caused by the the release of the two exotoxins (epidermolytic toxins A and B) from toxigenic strains of the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus.Symptoms: Recognised as red blistered skin that can appear ‘scalded’.Conventional Treatment: antibiotics are the preferred treatment optionMicroMed Note: Scalded Skin Syndrome is a sign of a microbial system out of balance on the skin, and often deeper than that.  This may have occurred due to overuse of anti-microbials whereby if all bacteria are killed including beneficial microbes, this paves the way for pathogenic bacteria to take hold.  If we determine where this imbalance originates it is likely to have begun in the gut, as well as the skin, through a process of microbial alteration, leading to inflammation and possibly this in turn leading to a Leaky Gut in the case of the gut, also known as Intestinal Permeability.  This is where the gut becomes too permeable and substances that should not gain access to the bloodstream, do and this in turn sets up an accumulating immune reaction.  It is little wonder that outbreaks of pathogenic bacteria are evident when there are so many animals with such compromised gastro-intestinal tracts.  Re-establishment of the microbial balance is necessary, to help reduce inflammation out-compete pathogens and restore equilibrium.  Studies show that the microbial balance can now affect whole body health - or disease - so this can be a first step on the path back to good health, using MicroMed’s Oral Probiotic on an ongoing basis or for preventative or acute situations.   

Ringworm

Description: A fungal disease that is common in many different animals, and is usually brought on by wet weather and a bacterial imbalance, particularly in show sheep who have had antimicrobials used on their wool and skin. The type of fungi responsible for this condition are called dermatophytes. Dermatophytes are a kind of microscopic organism, originating in soil, however they can also live as parasites beyond their home environment, ie, on the sheep’s skin. One of the fungi, Trichophyton verrucosum, responsible for ringworm, settles on the animal’s skin, causing inflammation and dermatitis.  Ringworm is treatable, but highly contagious and can spread to other animals as well as humans, so bear this in mind if you have more than one animal.Symptoms: It can cause circular areas of rashes or hair loss on the sheep's skin, a broken or stubbly coat, and alter the colour of their wool and skin. It can also appear as scaly/crusty lesions or inflamed patches of skin, occasionally requiring the tendency to scratch.Conventional Treatment: Various anti-fungal creams, or shampoos or systemic treatments are undertaken.MicroMed Note: Ringworm is a sign of a microbial system out of balance on the skin, and often deeper than that.  This may have occurred due to overuse of anti-microbial whereby if all bacteria is killed including this beneficial microbes, this paves the way for pathogenic bacteria to take hold.  If we determine where this imbalance originates it may have begun in the gut, as well as the skin, through a process of microbial alteration, leading to inflammation and possibly this in turn leading to a Leaky Gut in the case of the gut, also known as Intestinal Permeability.  This is where the gut becomes too permeable and substances that should not gain access to the bloodstream, do and this in turn sets up an accumulating immune reaction.  It is little wonder that outbreaks of pathogenic bacteria are evident when there are so many animals with such compromised gastro-intestinal tracts.  Re-establishment of the microbial balance is necessary, to help reduce inflammation, out-compete pathogens and restore equilibrium.  Studies show that the microbial balance can now affect whole body health - or disease - so this can be a first step on the path back to good health, using MicroMed’s Oral Probiotic on an ongoing basis or for preventative or acute situations.   

 

Udder Impetigo

Description: Usually caused by the bacterium Staphylococus aureus, causing inflammation of the skin, commonly on the udder, that can lead to intraepidermal pustules and crusts, which can take weeks to heal. Mastitis may develop.Symptoms: Lesions most commonly found on the skin at the base of the teat which can be circular, brown crusted pustules and can migrate into subcutaneous tissues presenting as ulcers and boils.Conventional Treatment: Good udder hygiene is essential for prevention and treatment, and the use of Chlorhexidine, a disinfectant and antiseptic, is the conventional treatment.MicroMed Note: Udder Impetigo is a sign of a microbial system out of balance on the skin, and often deeper than that.  This may have occurred due to overuse of anti-microbial whereby if all bacteria is killed including this beneficial microbes, this paves the way for pathogenic bacteria to take hold.  If we determine where this imbalance originates it is likely to have begun in the gut, as well as the skin, through a process of microbial alteration, leading to inflammation and possibly this in turn leading to a Leaky Gut in the case of the gut, also known as Intestinal Permeability.  This is where the gut becomes too permeable and substances that should not gain access to the bloodstream, do and this in turn sets up an accumulating immune reaction.  It is little wonder that outbreaks of pathogenic bacteria are evident when there are so many animals with such compromised gastro-intestinal tracts.  Re-establishment of the microbial balance is necessary, to help reduce inflammation out-compete pathogens and restore equilibrium.  Studies show that the microbial balance can now affect whole body health - or disease - so this can be a first step on the path back to good health, using MicroMed’s Oral Probiotic on an ongoing basis or for preventative or acute situations.   

 

Dermatophilus congolensis/Mycotic Dermatitis/Lumpy Wool:

Description: This is a spore forming bacterium, usually the cause of skin disease in different animals and sometimes humans. This particular species of bacteria, Dermatophilus congolensis, is particularly interesting due to its life cycle and characteristics being similar to that of a fungus.Symptoms: Infectious lesions are often seen on the face and ears, not just of sheep but this bacterium can also affect horses, cattle, goats and humans too. This condition can predispose the sheep to secondary infections such as fleece rot and fly strike.Conventional Treatment: usually a course of antibiotics is given and then a progress review is undertaken.MicroMed Note: Dermatophilus congolensis is a sign of a microbial system out of balance.  If we determine where this imbalance originates it is likely to have begun in the gut, through a process of microbial alteration, leading to inflammation and possibly this in turn leading to a Leaky Gut, also known as Intestinal Permeability.  This is where the gut becomes too permeable and substances that should not gain access to the bloodstream, do and this in turn sets up an accumulating immune reaction.  It is little wonder that outbreaks of pathogenic bacteria are evident when there are so many animals with such compromised gastro-intestinal tracts.  Re-establishment of the microbial balance is necessary, to help reduce inflammation, out-compete pathogens and restore equilibrium.  Studies show that the microbial balance can now affect whole body health - or disease - so this can be a first step on the path back to good health, using MicroMed’s Oral Probiotic on an ongoing basis or for preventative or acute situations.   

 

Early Footrot

Description: Early footrot is an anaerobic bacterial infection of the hoof that can be found in many animals, mostly cattle, goats, sheep and alpacas. This condition is much more prevalent in muddy, wet weather and during the summer months. Footrot can be divided into benign or early footrot and virulent footrot.  Early footrot can resemble OID (Ovine Interdigital Disease), and with immediate attention it can be prevented from developing into virulent footrot under the supervision of a vet.Symptoms: It can cause lameness and is more specifically found in the area between the toes of the animal, and has a very distinctive bad smell.Conventional Treatment: Animals infected with early footrot should be immediately isolated and treated by a veterinarian as this infection is extremely contagious. There are various protocols for treatment and as relapses are common, the animal should remain isolated until they have passed 2 examinations at least 1 month apart. If the sheep was with any animals prior to discovering the infection, then all healthy animals must be foot bathed and moved somewhere that has not been used by the infected animal/s for at least 2 weeks prior. Typical conventional treatment options often involve antibiotics, and footbathing, and occasionally, depending on the farmer, vaccinations.MicroMed Note: our recommendation is to follow the conventional protocol and once antibiotics or treatment is complete to commence re-establishment of the microbes with MicroMed for Livestock, Internal Care Range, preventatively.  MicroMed contains anaerobic and aerobic microbes and is therefore ideal to use to prevent early footrot/foot scald if it has been present in a flock or on a farm.

 

Folliculitis

Description: This is a contagious, superficial bacterial infection causing sores, bumps and scabs on the skin, usually only a few millimetre’s in size.Symptoms: A dull coat and shedding of hair with a scaly skin surface emerging underneath.  It usually accompanies other skin issues such as allergies.Conventional Treatment: antibiotics are the preferred treatmentMicroMed Note: Folliculitis is a sign of a microbial system out of balance.  If we determine where this imbalance originates it is likely to have begun in the gut, through a process of microbial alteration, leading to inflammation and possibly this in turn leading to a Leaky Gut, also known as Intestinal Permeability.  This is where the gut becomes too permeable and substances that should not gain access to the bloodstream, do and this in turn sets up an accumulating immune reaction.  It is little wonder that outbreaks of pathogenic bacteria are evident when there are so many animals with such compromised gastro-intestinal tracts.  Re-establishment of the microbial balance is necessary, to help reduce inflammation, out-compete pathogens and restore equilibrium.  Studies show that the microbial balance can now affect whole body health - or disease - so this can be a first step on the path back to good health, using MicroMed’s Oral Probiotic on an ongoing basis or for preventative or acute situations.   

 

Furunculosis

Description: This is a bacterial infection sometimes associated with Staphylococus. When the bacterial infection extends beneath the hair follicle it is referred to as deep pyoderma. Predisposing factors may be environmental in cause, or excessive moisture, or from insect bites.Symptoms: There can be ruptured hair follicles, nodules, and occasionally draining tracts which may lead to an ulcer.Conventional Treatment: antibiotics are the preferred treatmentMicroMed Note: Furunculosis is a sign of a microbial system out of balance.  If we determine where this imbalance originates it is likely to have begun in the gut, through a process of microbial alteration, leading to inflammation and possibly this in turn leading to a Leaky Gut, also known as Intestinal Permeability.  This is where the gut becomes too permeable and substances that should not gain access to the bloodstream, do and this in turn sets up an accumulating immune reaction.  It is little wonder that outbreaks of pathogenic bacteria are evident when there are so many animals with such compromised gastro-intestinal tracts.  Re-establishment of the microbial balance is necessary, to help reduce inflammation, out-compete pathogens and restore equilibrium.  Studies show that the microbial balance can now affect whole body health - or disease - so this can be a first step on the path back to good health, using MicroMed’s Oral Probiotic on an ongoing basis or for preventative or acute situations.   

 

Alopecia

Description: All animals, including sheep, shed their coat, however alopecia is a syndrome describing abnormal, excessive hair loss anywhere on the sheep’s body, and can occur as a result of an underlying condition or infection. This can be anything from stress, allergies, poor grooming, poor nutrition, or a bacterial or fungal infection. There are also certain sheep conditions that can directly slow and/or inhibit the growth of the hair follicles, or conditions that can cause direct damage to the hair ‘shaft’ or follicle; these include the common, inflammatory bacterial, fungal, or parasitic infections.Symptoms: Partial and total lack of hair in areas where it is usually present, can sometimes cause excessive itching.Conventional Treatment: Test for the underlying cause and treat accordingly.MicroMed Note: alopecia is a sign of a system out of balance.  If we determine where this imbalance originates it is likely to have begun in the gut, through a process of microbial alteration, leading to inflammation and possibly this in turn leading to a Leaky Gut, also known as Intestinal Permeability.  This is where the gut becomes too permeable and substances that should not gain access to the bloodstream, do and this in turn sets up an accumulating immune reaction.  It is little wonder that allergies are evident when there are so many animals with such compromised gastro-intestinal tracts.  Re-establishment of the microbial balance is necessary, to help reduce inflammation and restore equilibrium.  Studies show that the microbial balance can now affect whole body health - or disease so this can be a first step on the path back to good health, using MicroMed’s Oral Probiotic on an ongoing basis or for preventative or acute situations.   

Yersinia

Description: a bacterial condition caused by either Yersinia pseudo tuberculosis or Yersinia enterocoliticaSymptoms: causing smelly, often black, diarrhoea, which has been found previously to last up to two to three weeks.  This usually occurring in winter, and incidences found in both islands of New Zealand.  Weight gain did not seem to be affected and fatality is not normally observed.  The diarrhoea often appeared after a stress of some description, be it environmental or an occurrence such as shearing.Conventional Treatment: normally treated with antibiotics and rehydrationMicroMed Note: Once veterinary treatment is complete we recommend using MicroMed preventatively in your herd.  Yersinia is a sign of a system out of balance.  If we determine where this imbalance originates it is likely to have begun in the gut, through a process of microbial alteration, leading to inflammation and possibly this in turn leading to a Leaky Gut, also known as Intestinal Permeability.  This is where the gut becomes too permeable and substances that should not gain access to the bloodstream, do and this in turn sets up an accumulating immune reaction.  Re-establishment of the microbial balance is necessary, to help reduce inflammation and restore equilibrium.  Studies show that the microbial balance can now affect whole body health - or disease so this can be a first step on the path back to good health, using MicroMed’s Oral Probiotic on an ongoing basis or for preventative or acute situations.   

Tail necrosis

Description: Pig tail necrosis is a commonly occurring issue, particularly in younger piglets. In many cases, the cause of this issue is often associated with bacterial dermatitis, which can generate inflammation and therefore block blood circulation, if it was not due to injury.Symptoms: A ring of dead tissue at a point of the tail, that can restrict the blood supply to the extremity. The tail may have a brown, rigid, and brittle wound that breaks easily. It can occasionally also appear at the tip of the tail.Conventional Treatment: tail amputation and subsequent iodine bathing. MicroMed Note: Pig tail necrosis is a sign of a system out of balance, particularly pertaining to bacteria.  If we determine where this imbalance originates it is likely to have begun in the gut, through a process of microbial alteration, leading to inflammation and possibly this in turn leading to a Leaky Gut, also known as Intestinal Permeability.  This is where the gut becomes too permeable and substances that should not gain access to the bloodstream, do and this in turn sets up an accumulating immune reaction.  Re-establishment of the microbial balance is necessary, to help reduce inflammation and restore equilibrium.  Studies show that the microbial balance can now affect whole body health - or disease so this can be a first step on the path back to good health, using MicroMed’s Oral Probiotic on an ongoing basis or for preventative or acute situations.   

Ringworm

Description: A fungal disease that is common in many different animals, and is usually brought on by wet weather. The type of fungi responsible for this condition are called dermatophytes. Dermatophytes are a kind of microscopic organism, originating in soil, however they can also live as parasites beyond their home environment, ie, on your pet’s skin. The parasites responsible for ringworm settle in ‘droves’ on the animal’s skin, causing inflammation and dermatitis, presenting itself through all sorts of symptoms. Ringworm is treatable, but highly contagious and can spread to other pets as well as humans, so bear this in mind if you have more than one pet in your household.Symptoms: It can cause circular areas of rashes or hair loss on the goat’s skin, a broken or stubbly coat, and alter the colour of their fur and skin. It can also appear as scaly/crusty lesions or inflamed patches of skin which can cause them to excessively groom and scratch.Conventional Treatment: various anti-fungal creams, or shampoos or systemic treatments are undertakenMicroMed Note: ringworm is a sign of a system out of balance.  If we determine where this imbalance originates it is likely to have begun in the gut, through a process of microbial alteration, leading to inflammation and possibly this in turn leading to a Leaky Gut, also known as Intestinal Permeability.  This is where the gut becomes too permeable and substances that should not gain access to the bloodstream, do and this in turn sets up an accumulating immune reaction.  Re-establishment of the microbial balance is necessary, to help reduce inflammation and restore equilibrium, and out-compete ringworm.  Studies show that the microbial balance can now affect whole body health - or disease so this can be a first step on the path back to good health, using MicroMed’s Oral Probiotic on an ongoing basis or for preventative or acute situations.  

 

 

Ovine Interdigital Dermatitis (OID), Scald, Strip

Description: OID, generally found in the interdigital region can lead to early footrot if it is not treated early,  The bacterium D. nodosus cannot invade the dermis without pre-existing damage to the foot. D. nodosus can invade deeper layers, as it feeds on the collagen, and the secondary bacterium F. necrophorum can then invade and contribute to further inflammation and tissues damage, caused by the metabolites this latter bacteria produces, leading to footrotSymptoms: inflammation and loss of hair can occur in the interdigital area without an under-running of the hoof horn.  If the hoof-horn is involved this is termed virulent footrot, and will involve the two bacterium.  This condition must be treated by a vet.Conventional Treatment: 15 minute submersion in 5 day foot-bathing with either 10% zinc sulphate, or 5% formalin (which is 40% formaldehyde).  There can however be secondary complications from this, leading to toe granulomas if it is done too often.MicroMed Note: OID is a sign of a system out of balance.  If we determine where this imbalance originates it is likely to have begun in the gut, through a process of microbial alteration, leading to inflammation and possibly this in turn leading to a Leaky Gut, also known as Intestinal Permeability.  This is where the gut becomes too permeable and substances that should not gain access to the bloodstream, do and this in turn sets up an accumulating immune reaction. Re-establishment of the microbial balance is necessary, to help reduce inflammation and restore equilibrium.  Studies show that the microbial balance can now affect whole body health - or disease so this can be a first step on the path back to good health, using MicroMed’s Oral Probiotic on an ongoing basis or for preventative or acute situations.   

  

Flaky/Dry Skin/Dandruff

Description: Dry, flaky skin is found in some goats especially during the winter months, when the skin is more vulnerable and therefore prone to dandruff, dryness, etc. It is usually no cause for concern, however it could also be a sign of nutritional deficiencies, with a possible fat or iodine deficiency, or a reaction to something present in the goats environment, genetic, sucking lice or it could be due to an underlying health concern such as a bacterial or fungal issue, or yeast excess.Symptoms: Dandruff, dry patches/scabs, skin flakes off when brushing.Conventional Treatment: determining the reason and treating accordingly.MicroMed Note: Dry Skin and Dandruff are signs of a system out of balance.  If we determine where this imbalance originates it is likely to have begun in the gut, through a process of microbial alteration, leading to inflammation and possibly this in turn leading to a Leaky Gut, also known as Intestinal Permeability.  This is where the gut becomes too permeable and substances that should not gain access to the bloodstream, do and this in turn sets up an accumulating immune reaction.  Re-establishment of the microbial balance is necessary, to help reduce inflammation and restore equilibrium.  Studies show that the microbial balance can now affect whole body health - or disease so this can be a first step on the path back to good health, using MicroMed’s Oral Probiotic on an ongoing basis or for preventative or acute situations.  

Early or Benign Footrot/Foot Scald (as opposed to virulent footrot)

Description: Unfortunately, goats are more susceptible to footrot and foot scald, caused by the bacterium Dichelobacter nodosus, than certain breeds of sheep, and this condition is now widespread throughout NZ, particularly in wetter areas. The bacterium Dichelobacter nodosus strain, is found in ruminants and can be passed from sheep to goats, hence why it is not encouraged to graze them in the same paddocks or together..Symptoms: the interdigital dermatitis in foot scald is characterised by lesions, however diagnosis with foot scald can be early foot rotor caused by benign strains of D. nodosus, that do not break down keratin and cause virulent footrot.Conventional Treatment: benign footrot does not require intervention, although hoof trimming is indicated and possible foot-bathing will be undertaken by some farmersMicroMed Note: Benign footrot or foot Scald are signs of a system out of balance.  If we determine where this imbalance originates it is likely to have begun in the gut, through a process of microbial alteration, leading to inflammation and possibly this in turn leading to a Leaky Gut, also known as Intestinal Permeability.  This is where the gut becomes too permeable and substances that should not gain access to the bloodstream, do and this in turn sets up an accumulating immune reaction.  Re-establishment of the microbial balance is necessary, to help reduce inflammation and restore equilibrium.  Studies show that the microbial balance can now affect whole body health - or disease so this can be a first step on the path back to good health, using MicroMed’s Oral Probiotic on an ongoing basis or for preventative or acute situations.  

 

Entero-toxaemia / over-eating

Description: This is caused by two strains of bacteria; Clostridium perfringens type C & D.Symptoms: loss of appetite, abdominal discomfort, and runny and profusely watery diarrheoa, which may be bloody.Conventional Treatment: Five in 1 vaccineMicroMed Note: Entero-toxaemia is a sign of a system out of balance.  If we determine where this imbalance originates it is likely to have begun in the gut, through a process of microbial alteration, leading to inflammation and possibly this in turn leading to a Leaky Gut, also known as Intestinal Permeability.  This is where the gut becomes too permeable and substances that should not gain access to the bloodstream, do and this in turn sets up an accumulating immune reaction.  Re-establishment of the microbial balance is necessary, to restore correct pH, to help reduce inflammation and restore equilibrium.  Studies show that the microbial balance can now affect whole body health - or disease so this can be a first step on the path back to good health, using MicroMed’s Oral Probiotic on an ongoing basis or for preventative or acute situations.   

Minor Dermatophilosis /  Minor Rain Scald:

Description: Considered the most common skin disease of young goats in New Zealand, the causative organism, Dermatophilus congolensis, invades a compromised, outer skin layer or superficial epidermis, often in persistently wet skin.Symptoms: Elevated, scabby, and sometimes pus-filled, lesions around the muzzle, ears, eyes, bridge of the nose and sometimes on the lower limbs, particularly in Angora goats.  In young kids, the lesions are occasionally severe enough to interfere with the kids ability to suck, but the disease is seldom fatal and in most cases resolves spontaneously. Treatment antibioticsMicroMed Note: Rain scald is a sign of a system out of balance.  If we determine where this imbalance originates it is likely to have begun in the gut, through a process of microbial alteration, leading to inflammation and possibly this in turn leading to a Leaky Gut, also known as Intestinal Permeability.  This is where the gut becomes too permeable and substances that should not gain access to the bloodstream, do and this in turn sets up an accumulating immune reaction.  It is little wonder that allergies are evident when there are so many animals with such compromised gastro-intestinal tracts.  Re-establishment of the microbial balance is necessary, to help reduce inflammation and restore equilibrium.  Studies show that the microbial balance can now affect whole body health - or disease so this can be a first step on the path back to good health, using MicroMed’s Oral Probiotic on an ongoing basis or for preventative or acute situations.   

 

Yeast Infections/Malassezia Dermatitis

Description: Yeast infections are caused by an overgrowth of fungus. Malassezia is a type of fungus that occurs when there is an excess of yeast. A yeast infection can present itself in many different ways, and if left untreated can worsen.Symptoms: Yeast infections in animals most commonly present themselves as candida, malassezia, or ear infections, and can be one or more of thousands of different strains of yeast or fungal conditions. Malassezia usually presents itself as hyperpigmentation on the skin.Conventional Treatment: topical anti-fungal treatmentMicroMed Note: Yeast overgrowth and malassezia are signs of a system out of balance.  If we determine where this imbalance originates it is likely to have begun in the gut, through a process of microbial alteration, leading to inflammation and possibly this in turn leading to a Leaky Gut, also known as Intestinal Permeability.  This is where the gut becomes too permeable and substances that should not gain access to the bloodstream, do and this in turn sets up an accumulating immune reaction.   Re-establishment of the microbial balance is necessary, to out-compete the detrimental overgrowth, to help reduce inflammation and restore equilibrium.  Studies show that the microbial balance can now affect whole body health - or disease so this can be a first step on the path back to good health, using MicroMed’s Oral Probiotic on an ongoing basis or for preventative or acute situations.   

Staphylococcal Dermatitis

Description: Staphylococci are a type of bacteria which invade skin lesions on goats.Symptoms: This can generally be all over the body, or in a localised area and often creates pustules which can crust and ‘scale’ over. Can also cause alopecia (hair loss).Conventional Treatment: Usually antibioticsMicroMed Note: An overgrowth of staph is a sign of a system out of balance.  If we determine where this imbalance originates it is likely to have begun in the gut, through a process of microbial alteration, leading to inflammation and possibly this in turn leading to a Leaky Gut, also known as Intestinal Permeability.  This is where the gut becomes too permeable and substances that should not gain access to the bloodstream, do and this in turn sets up an accumulating immune reaction.  Re-establishment of the microbial balance is necessary, to help reduce inflammation and restore equilibrium.  Studies show that the microbial balance can now affect whole body health - or disease so this can be a first step on the path back to good health, using MicroMed’s Oral Probiotic on an ongoing basis or for preventative or acute situations.   

Alopecia

Description: All animals, including goats, shed their coat, however Alopecia is a syndrome describing abnormal, excessive hair loss anywhere on the goat’s body, and can occur as a result of an underlying condition or infection. This can be anything from stress, allergies, poor grooming or nutrition, or a bacterial or fungal infection. There are also certain goat conditions that can directly slow and/or inhibit the growth of the hair follicles, or conditions that can cause direct damage to the hair ‘shaft’ or follicle; these include the common, inflammatory bacterial, fungal, or parasitic infections.Symptoms: Partial and total lack of hair in areas where it is usually present, can sometimes cause excessive itching.Conventional Treatment: test for the underlying cause and treatMicroMed Note: Alopecia is a sign of a system out of balance.  If we determine where this imbalance originates it is likely to have begun in the gut, through a process of microbial alteration, leading to inflammation and possibly this in turn leading to a Leaky Gut, also known as Intestinal Permeability.  This is where the gut becomes too permeable and substances that should not gain access to the bloodstream, do and this in turn sets up an accumulating immune reaction.  Re-establishment of the microbial balance is necessary, to help reduce inflammation and restore equilibrium.  Studies show that the microbial balance can now affect whole body health - or disease so this can be a first step on the path back to good health, using MicroMed’s Oral Probiotic on an ongoing basis or for preventative or acute situations.